Margaret’s Teacher Training Project – Introduction
I confirm that the work reported in this project was carried out under my own supervision as the project supervisor.
I unreservedly wish to thank my project supervisors, Mr. Nickson Nyule, Mr. Kisingo James, Madam Emily Kituri and Mr. Allen Nyange who tirelessly steered me through this project. My sincere gratitude goes to our Kileva School Headmistress Joyce Wandeto who granted me the opportunity of carrying out my research work at the school. My colleague teachers who took care of my class during my absence while i was carrying out my research.
I thank the Kileva Foundation who built the Kileva Eastfield School to the Mwakoma community and i also wish to thank the school children and the parents for their support in my research project.
Finally, my sincere gratitude goes to the InspireWorld Services (Potters House) who have been cooperative in typing, printing and binding of my project report.
I wholeheartedly wish to dedicate this work to Mr.Cliff Evans who has been my mentor and guardian and MrsTabitha Mtalaki who tirelessly supported me throughout my entire research project. I also dedicate this project to the almighty God for taking me through and His guidance during the period of study.
Abreviations & Acronyms
EFA: Education For All
ECD: Early Childhood Development
ECDE: Early Childhood Development Education
FPE: Free Primary Education
GOK: Government of Kenya
KANU: Kenya African National Union
MOE: Ministry of Education
MOEST: Ministry of Education,Science and Technology
NARC: National Alliance of Rainbow Coalition
UN: United Nations
UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UPE: Universal Primary Education
The researcher in chapter one began her work by exploring the background information, purpose of the study statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions ,significance of the study limitation and delimitation of the study.
In chapter two the researcher reviewed the related literature under the following subtopics community and free primary education, gender and free primary education, free primary education and its challenges among others.
In chapter three the researcher explored research methodology and covered into research approach, research design, target population, sample and sampling procedures, research tools, study area and data collection and analysis.
When it comes to chapter four the researcher deals with research analysis and discussion and used pie charts, bar graphs and frequency tables to analyze data.
In the final chapter – chapter five – the researcher carried out an in depth presentation of the summary and discussion. The researcher made some of the following recommendations: free and compulsory education should start from pre-school. early Childhood development (ECD) learners should always be given priority in case of implementation of any policy or Ministry guidance and eventually concluded indeed that free primary education highly has affected learners in the Early Childhood development Education (ECDE) centers.
Introduction – Education in Kenya since the early 1970s
Education is the backbone of every community world wide. It has been pulling resources together in order to fulfill the existing gaps in poverty eradication to provide fulfilling better living standards of humankind. However the high dropout rate in Kenyan schools was a response to not only the very high levies but also this quality of education that was being offered following the government intervention. As a result of high enrollment there was overcrowding in class and supply of teaching and learning materials underwent a severe strain since the early 1970s their distribution has been centralized through the Kenya school equipment scheme to most of the primary schools. Distribution problem was compounded by the variety of topography and long distance consequently; many of the schools went without basic learning teaching materials for a greater part of 1974.
With regard to the teaching force at the time of pronouncement the country was already short of properly trained teachers. In 1975 the teaching force stood at 56,000 teachers out of whom 126,000 were professionally unqualified. In 1974 an additional of 25,000 teachers were needed for this new classes .by 1975 the number of unqualified teachers stood at 40,000 out of teaching force of 90,000 teachers.
With such a teaching environment high dropout rates in primary education became inevitable. The newly instituted building fund which was meant to be purely spontaneous reaction to an emergency became a permanent feature. Beyond the accruement of more unqualified teachers, the government played a very minor role in the implementation of the Free Primary Education (FPE).
Free Primary Education
If anyone was quite satisfied that school committee had successfully implemented the program with minimal cost on its part overall effort of government intervention in primary education and the implementation arising out of it made primary education more expensive than before. During the 2002 government elections the National Alliance Rainbow Coalition (NARC) made the provision of free primary education part of its elections manifesto.
Following the victory in January 6th, 2003 the minister for education science and technology concluded the FPE to fulfill NARC’s election pledge. Fees and levies was abolished as the government and development parties were to pay 1,020 Kenyan Shillings per child per year in primary school.
The FPE did not require parent and communities to build schools but they were to refurbish and use the existing facilities such as communities and religious buildings. If they wished to charge additional levies, school heads and communities had to obtain approval from Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MOEST). This request had to be sent to the district educational board (DEB) by the area educational officer after consensus among parents through provisional director of education, after lengthily land tedious process.
Number of Primary Schools
Before the NARC parliament the number of primary schools in the country had increased from 14,864 in 1990 to 18,901 in 2001 representing 27% increase. Enrollment in absolute terms had also gone up from 5,392,319 to 631,472 being a 17.1% rise over the same period. The percentage of girls to enrollment had increased in the same period to 49.3%implying that gender parity in enrollment in primary had nearly been achieved. Primary school Net Enrollment Ratio (NER) however showed a very disturbing picture in the north eastern province (mainly inhabited by pastoralists) where when boys propitiated to 16.5% girls 9.8% for the province.
Following the NARC’S intervention in January 2003,it was estimated NER rose from around 6314726 to 7614326 by the end of the year representing 22.3%,increase nationally, it was also estimated that another three million children were not enrolled in school. Despite the various logistical problems that seem to be hampering children from poor social economic backgrounds especially girls from failing to participate in primary education or dropping out of school due to lack of fees or other school levies.
Overall the policy intervention could prove determinative in the effort to achieve Education for All (EFA). And although in educational ministry the permanent secretary released 6.3 billion shillings for the free primary school and secondary schools education to commence its very unfortunate that Early Childhood Development Education (ECDE) wasn’t included in the package.
Since independence in Kenya in 1963 the government and the people have been committed to expand in the education system, to enable greater participation. This has been to response of an umber of concerns.
Among many concerns have been the desire to eliminate and combat ignorance, diseases and poverty and the belief is that every Kenyan child has the right to access to; basic welfare provisions including education and that the government was the obligation to provide the citizens with the opportunity to take part fully in the social economic and political development. The effort to expand educational opportunities has been reflected in the various policy documents and development plans.
The Kenyan government policy to achieve universal primary education was to be seen within development in the wider international context. The universal declaration of human rights adopted in 1948 declared that “everyone has a right to basic education. The world conference on Education For All (EFA) held in Jomeiteen Thailand (1990) sparked off a new impetus towards basic education especially with the it’s so called vision and renewed commitment.
It is noted that to serve the basic needs for all, requires more than a re commitment to basic education as a new exists. What is needed is an expanded vision that surpasses resources levels, institutional structures, co-curricular and convectional delivery systems while building on the best in the practices.
The Amman mid-decade review of education for all (1996) re-affirmed the commitment to the Jomeitien resolutions. It observed that the provision of basic education an especially for girls has remained elusive in many developing countries. This was said to be particularly so in Africa where ethnic extents ions and conflicts have displaced many households, thus denying the children the opportunity of going to school. The Dakar conference of 2000 reviewed this development in achieving Universal Primary Education (UPE).
Education For All Goals
In the African continent it sets as one of the EFA goals “eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education and ensuring gender equality in education by 2015”.This was further endorsed by the so called Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Among other things they set target to ensure that by 2015 children everywhere boys and girls alike will be able to complete a full coarse of primary schooling.
Within this broad policy frame work since independence in 1963 the expansion of learning institutions has been one of the greatest achievements in the education sector. Kenya has achieved an impressive increase in adult literacy. The achievement in literacy has reflected the countries impressive progress in expanding access to education during the last four decades largely by establishing a comprehensive network of school throughout the country.
The substantial expansion of education has generally resulted in an increased participation by groups that previously had little or no access to schooling. Enrollment of a greater percentage of girls and indeed the attainment of Universal Primary Education (UPE) and Education for All (EFA).
However it is agreed that the numerous problems that have bedeviled the implementation, of the intervention and the fact that the cost of it is beyond the current budget allocation casts a very serious doubt on the viability of the current FPE experiment. This is all the same as similar experiment in the 1970 seem to have achieved very little in terms of expanding educational opportunities for the marginalized groups.
In the 1963 elections which Kenya African National Union that is (KANU) became the ruling party, it published a manifesto entitled “What a KANU government offers you”. This manifesto committed the party to coffering a minimum of 7 years of free primary education. In the 1969 elections manifesto; the party again re echoed it’s commitment to providing the 7 years of free primary education. it was emphasized that it was the KANU government guiding principles to give priority in education programs to areas which were neglected during the colonial rule so that every Kenyan child would share fully in the process of national building and in enjoying the fruit of government lab our .In this move sparsely populated areas, the government pledged to continue its program of building primary and secondary schools so that every child in these districts which had a low average enrollment would get an opportunity to attend school.
The government fees remission programs were to be contained in favor of these areas. These include such areas as north-eastern, eastern province, the districts of Marsabit, Isiolo, Samburu, Turkana, West Pokot, Baringo, Narok, Elgeyo-Marakwet and Samburu in Rift Valley province as well as Tana -River in Coast province.offers you”. This manifesto committed the party to offering a minimum of 7 years of free primary education. In the 1969 elections manifesto; the party again re echoed it’s commitment to providing the 7 years of free primary education. it was emphasized that it was the KANU government guiding principles to give priority in education programs to areas which were neglected during the colonial rule so that every Kenyan child would share fully in the process of national building and in enjoying the fruit of government lab our .In this move sparsely populated areas, the government pledged to continue its program of building primary and secondary schools so that every child in these districts which had a low average enrolment would get an opportunity to attend school.
A second presidential decree in 12thDecember 1973 during the celebrations of the so called “Ten Great Years Of Independence”, claimed to have brought the country close to achieving “universal free primary education “the directive provided free education for children in class one to four in all the districts in the country. It went further to provide a uniform fee structure to those in standard five to eight in the whole country. Those fees were Sh. 60 per child per annum. Subsequent directives went further and abolished school fees in primary schools in primary education.
The aim of free primary education program was to provide more school opportunities especially for poor communities. The argument was that the payment of the school fees is tended to prevent a large proportion of the children from attending school.
The presidential decree proving free education in the early classes was one of the most dramatic political comments of Kenyatta era. Since it took planners and public unawares the financial implications as well as various members of its introduction were not subjected to scrutiny. In January 1974 the ministry of education had to re think its priorities in order to cope with the staggering rise of pupils enrollment in standard one rose by a million above the estimated figure of 400,000. The total enrollment figure for standard one to six increased from 1.8 million in 1973 to nearly 2.8 million in 1974.
Abolition of School Fees
At the time of abolition of school fees no counter measures were announced about how to replace the lost revenue. Initially primary schools were at a loss as to what to do about the lost revenue and after failing to get clear directives school revenue under the guise of a “building fund”.
Ostensibly this was aimed at putting up new facilities with enlarged enrolment a country wide program had to be launched to cope with extra class. Many schools were not aware of the new plans needed. In some schools as many as five extra classrooms came into being. The school levy carried from district to anole but in most cases it turned out to be higher than the school fees charged prior to the decree. This frustrated parents who had little alternative but ‘to withdraw their children.
Initially in most districts except for most in Arid and Semi Arid Lands (ASAL) enrollment almost doubled showing a radical change during the 1973 to 1974 period. After that the situation reversed to where it had been before. It was estimated that around one to two million school aged children did not continue attending school after the decree. The explanation was that many of these children who had enrolled dropped out following the introduction of the building levy. Enrollment even in districts that had experienced large infusion of new children, reversed to the situation before 1973.